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39.4.1 Displaying Messages in the Echo Area

This section describes the standard functions for displaying messages in the echo area.

function message format-string \&rest arguments

This function displays a message in the echo area. format-string is a format string, and arguments are the objects for its format specifications, like in the format-message function (see Formatting Strings). The resulting formatted string is displayed in the echo area; if it contains face text properties, it is displayed with the specified faces (see Faces). The string is also added to the *Messages* buffer, but without text properties (see Logging Messages).

Typically grave accent and apostrophe in the format translate to matching curved quotes, e.g., "Missing `%s'" might result in "Missing ‘foo’". See Text Quoting Style, for how to influence or inhibit this translation.

In batch mode, the message is printed to the standard error stream, followed by a newline.

When inhibit-message is non-nil, no message will be displayed in the echo area, it will only be logged to ‘*Messages*’.

If format-string is nil or the empty string, message clears the echo area; if the echo area has been expanded automatically, this brings it back to its normal size. If the minibuffer is active, this brings the minibuffer contents back onto the screen immediately.

(message "Reverting `%s'..." (buffer-name))
-| Reverting ‘subr.el’...
⇒ "Reverting ‘subr.el’..."
---------- Echo Area ----------
Reverting ‘subr.el’...
---------- Echo Area ----------

To automatically display a message in the echo area or in a pop-buffer, depending on its size, use display-message-or-buffer (see below).

Warning: If you want to use your own string as a message verbatim, don’t just write (message string). If string contains ‘%’, ‘`’, or ‘'’ it may be reformatted, with undesirable results. Instead, use (message "%s" string).

variable set-message-function

If this variable is non-nil, it should be a function of one argument, the text of a message to display in the echo area. This function will be called by message and related functions. If the function returns nil, the message is displayed in the echo area as usual. If this function returns a string, that string is displayed in the echo area instead of the original one. If this function returns other non-nil values, that means the message was already handled, so message will not display anything in the echo area. See also clear-message-function that can be used to clear the message displayed by this function.

The default value is the function that displays the message at the end of the minibuffer when the minibuffer is active. However, if the text shown in the active minibuffer has the minibuffer-message text property (see Special Properties) on some character, the message will be displayed before the first character having that property.

variable clear-message-function

If this variable is non-nil, message and related functions call it with no arguments when their argument message is nil or the empty string.

Usually this function is called when the next input event arrives after displaying an echo-area message. The function is expected to clear the message displayed by its counterpart function specified by set-message-function.

The default value is the function that clears the message displayed in an active minibuffer.

variable inhibit-message

When this variable is non-nil, message and related functions will not use the Echo Area to display messages.

macro with-temp-message message \&rest body

This construct displays a message in the echo area temporarily, during the execution of body. It displays message, executes body, then returns the value of the last body form while restoring the previous echo area contents.

function message-or-box format-string \&rest arguments

This function displays a message like message, but may display it in a dialog box instead of the echo area. If this function is called in a command that was invoked using the mouse—more precisely, if last-nonmenu-event (see Command Loop Info) is either nil or a list—then it uses a dialog box or pop-up menu to display the message. Otherwise, it uses the echo area. (This is the same criterion that y-or-n-p uses to make a similar decision; see Yes-or-No Queries.)

You can force use of the mouse or of the echo area by binding last-nonmenu-event to a suitable value around the call.

function message-box format-string \&rest arguments

This function displays a message like message, but uses a dialog box (or a pop-up menu) whenever that is possible. If it is impossible to use a dialog box or pop-up menu, because the terminal does not support them, then message-box uses the echo area, like message.

function display-message-or-buffer message \&optional buffer-name action frame

This function displays the message message, which may be either a string or a buffer. If it is shorter than the maximum height of the echo area, as defined by max-mini-window-height, it is displayed in the echo area, using message. Otherwise, display-buffer is used to show it in a pop-up buffer.

Returns either the string shown in the echo area, or when a pop-up buffer is used, the window used to display it.

If message is a string, then the optional argument buffer-name is the name of the buffer used to display it when a pop-up buffer is used, defaulting to *Message*. In the case where message is a string and displayed in the echo area, it is not specified whether the contents are inserted into the buffer anyway.

The optional arguments action and frame are as for display-buffer, and only used if a buffer is displayed.

function current-message

This function returns the message currently being displayed in the echo area, or nil if there is none.