An array is composed of an arbitrary number of slots for holding or referring to other Lisp objects, arranged in a contiguous block of memory. Accessing any element of an array takes approximately the same amount of time. In contrast, accessing an element of a list requires time proportional to the position of the element in the list. (Elements at the end of a list take longer to access than elements at the beginning of a list.)
Emacs defines four types of array: strings, vectors, bool-vectors, and char-tables.
A string is an array of characters and a vector is an array of arbitrary objects. A bool-vector can hold only
nil. These kinds of array may have any length up to the largest fixnum, subject to system architecture limits and available memory. Char-tables are sparse arrays indexed by any valid character code; they can hold arbitrary objects.
The first element of an array has index zero, the second element has index 1, and so on. This is called zero-origin indexing. For example, an array of four elements has indices 0, 1, 2, and 3. The largest possible index value is one less than the length of the array. Once an array is created, its length is fixed.
All Emacs Lisp arrays are one-dimensional. (Most other programming languages support multidimensional arrays, but they are not essential; you can get the same effect with nested one-dimensional arrays.) Each type of array has its own read syntax; see the following sections for details.
The array type is a subset of the sequence type, and contains the string type, the vector type, the bool-vector type, and the char-table type.